Test-Time Adaptation for Visual Document Understanding

Sayna Ebrahimi · Sercan O Arik · Tomas Pfister


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For visual document understanding (VDU), self-supervised pretraining has been shown to successfully generate transferable representations, yet, effective adaptation of such representations to distribution shifts at test-time remains to be an unexplored area. We propose DocTTA, a novel test-time adaptation method for documents, that does source-free domain adaptation using unlabeled target document data. DocTTA leverages cross-modality self-supervised learning via masked visual language modeling, as well as pseudo labeling to adapt models learned on a \textit{source} domain to an unlabeled \textit{target} domain at test time. We introduce new benchmarks using existing public datasets for various VDU tasks, including entity recognition, key-value extraction, and document visual question answering. DocTTA shows significant improvements on these compared to the source model performance, up to 1.89\% in (F1 score), 3.43\% (F1 score), and 17.68\% (ANLS score), respectively.